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This paper presents evidence about the lives of older women in Scotland. For the purposes of this paper, this includes women aged 50 and older. In June , However, the proportion of women among the overs is expected to fall. Overall, women have a longer life expectancy than men, but they are also expected to live more years in poor health. Women aged 55 and over are more likely to have a long-term condition than not to have one.
However, women aged 65 and over reported better mental health on average than those aged , in Older women are much more likely than older men to live alone. They are also more likely to live in social housing, and less likely to own their own home. Pensioner employment had risen consistently over the preceding decade.
Older women experience a greater gender pay gap than younger groups. Overall, The graph below shows the estimated proportion of men and women among older age groups in Scotland. It is expected to rise to 5. Its population is expected to age overall: estimates are that by , The proportion of women among older people is projected to decrease, however, since men are projected to experience a larger increase in life expectancy than women.
It is estimated that by , Overall, women have a longer life expectancy than men, but they are also expected to live more years in poor health compared to men. Healthy life expectancy for men and women in Scotland, as of , and based how individuals perceive their general health, is shown in the graphs below. Graph 2: Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in years, Scotland National Records of Scotland. These graphs show that, for example, a woman aged is expected to live for another In comparison, a man of the same age is expected to live for another Older women are much more likely to be widows than older men are to be widowers.
Older people have lower internet usage rates than younger age groups. As of , older women were more likely than older men to have no qualifications. Older women were also slightly less likely to have a higher Education HE qualification than older men, in both age groups. Graph 3: Highest level of qualification by gender and age, National Records of Scotland. Research conducted in found that pensioner employment had risen consistently over the preceding decade, including through the last recession. Overall, pensioners were more likely than any other age group to be self-employed.
Working pensioners were found to work mainly in medium-high skilled occupations, but female pensioners worked considerably more in medium-low and low skilled occupations than male pensioners. The reasons that pensioners were choosing to remain in work included:.
Prior to April , women reached the state pension age SPA at These changes did not affect the SPA for men, which remained at The SPA for both men and women will increase further to reach 66 by , and will continue to increase to 67 years between and Older women experience a greater gender pay gap than younger age groups. There are a of different ways to measure the gender pay gap. Looking at median hourly earnings for those working full time , women aged experienced a pay gap of In comparison, the median full-time gender pay gap was 8.
When all employees are taken into including those working part-time as well as full-time , the pay gap was The graph below shows how these gender pay gaps have changed over time for the age group note that there were discontinuities in the data series in , and due to methodological changes. Graph 4: Gender pay gap for ages over time, full-time and all employees ASHE median hourly earnings excl. Recent research has found that older women are particularly disadvantaged in terms of choice around their later working life.
Women were more likely than men to have been negatively affected by the cumulative interaction of insecure, low-paid jobs alongside multiple caring responsibilities throughout their lives. Women in this situation were less likely to have built up sufficient pension entitlements to retire with an adequate income. For those participants with caring responsibilities, employer flexibility around taking leave and adjusting working hours was greatly appreciated as a means of enabling them to combine work and care.
Lower-income women were most likely to suffer the financial consequences of insecure labour market conditions, caring responsibilities and health problems, especially if they were single or divorced. They were also more likely to be employed in less secure and lower-paid work.
These findings may help explain why the gender pay gap is higher among older cohorts of workers. The research found resistance among some participants to shifting societal expectations that people should now work longer, and that women in particular tended to express long-held expectations about retiring at 60, if not before. The graph below shows how the percentage of women and men living alone differed by age group in Both older men and older women in Scotland are most likely to be living in housing that they own either outright, or with the help of a loan or mortgage , compared to renting or other form of tenure.
The table below shows the proportions of men and women in different age groups that had different types of tenure in Table 1: Tenure of households by gender and age, Scottish Household Survey, The adults in this sample are random adults selected from each household that responded to the Survey. Base s have been rounded to the nearest Older women were much less likely than older men to feel safe walking alone at night in their neighbourhood this difference is also true for younger age groups.
Women are more likely than men to provide regular help for any sick, disabled or frail person across all age groups. As the graph below shows, women aged are the most likely to provide this care, followed by women aged Graph 6: Provision of any regular help for any sick, disabled or frail person, by age and gender Scottish Health Survey, The Healthy Aging in Scotland study HAGIS asked older men and women whether they provided care for either adults or children, and similarly found that women were more likely to provide care across all age groups.
Amongst this group of older people, women aged were the most likely to be providing care for adults or children. The Scottish Health Survey has found that for the majority of older men and women carers, their caring has either not affected their employment, or they have never had a job. However, a small proportion of carers reported impacts on their employment, including being unable to take up work, having to work fewer hours, leaving work altogether or taking early retirement. Findings were broadly similar for men and women. Just over 50, of these women were aged The graph below shows the s of older men and women who received social care in , by age group.
Graph 8: Clients receiving social care in , by age and gender Social Care Survey Personal care can include help with:. However, it is important to note that dementia is known to be under-recorded in social care management information systems. The proportion of older women self-assessing their general health as good or very good decreases with age. A long-term condition is a physical or mental health condition or illness lasting, or expected to last 12 months or more. Graph Prevalence of limiting and non-limiting long-term conditions in women, by age Scottish Health Survey, Dementia is a syndrome associated with an ongoing decline of brain functioning.
It can include problems with memory loss, thinking speed, language, understanding, judgement, movement and mood. However, the relative gap is narrowing, since there were almost 3 times as many deaths among women than men in The average age at death for women was The age group with the most estimated diagnosis of dementia appeared to be year olds.
However, this research did not consider the differences in diagnosis rates between men and women. International research suggests that while incidence rates of dementia are similar for men and women up to a certain age different studies suggest up to age 85 and up to age 90 , the incidence rate is greater in women in very old age.
For women in this age group the most common cancers were:. Women aged are invited for breast screening every three years and women over 70 are screened on request. Women aged are invited for cervical screening , with those aged invited every 5 years. Women on non-routine screening where screening have shown changes that require further investigation or follow up are now invited up to age All people aged are invited for bowel screening every 2 years.
Those aged over 74 can self-refer or opt in. Women aged 65 and over reported better mental health on average than those aged , in The Scottish Health Survey measures wellbeing with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale WEMWBS , which assesses positive affect optimism, cheerfulness, relaxation and satisfying interpersonal relationships and positive functioning energy, clear thinking, self-acceptance, personal development, mastery and autonomy.
The lowest possible score is 14, and the highest is Women aged scored slightly lower on average, at This rose to Similar proportions of older men and women suffer from depression, but older women are much more likely than older men to suffer from anxiety. In , the proportion of older women with 2 or more symptoms of anxiety was around twice that of men in all age groups.
Data sources drawn on in this report collect self-reported data on whether respondents are male or female. The term gender is therefore used throughout this report, although though some data sources use the term sex in their research. For the full list of references and a downloadable PDF please follow this link. Older Women — What we already know. Change Cookie Settings.Mature women sex in scotland
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